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Parnassius apollo pictures here!  

Europa, C. Asia

40. Parnassius Apollo (Linnaeus, 1758)
Finnish: Apollo English: Apollo Apollofjäril German: Apollo French: l'Apollon Spanish: Apolo
Syst. Nat. 10:465
Larva on Sedum telephium, Sedum album, Sedum rosea, Sedum purpurascens, Sedum aizoon, Sedum hybridum, Sempervivum
 Parnassius apollo distribution in Scandinavia
 Parnassius apollo sample pics
Described subspecies and forms:
Parnassius apollo subsp. adonais Fruhstorfer, 1922
Parnassius apollo subsp. adulanus Fruhstorfer, 1921
Parnassius apollo subsp. adzharensis Sheljuzhko, 1924
Parnassius apollo subsp. agyiens Fruhstorfer, 1921
Parnassius apollo subsp. agyieno/altitudinis Bryk,1921
Parnassius apollo subsp. agyieus H Fruhstorfer, 1921
Parnassius apollo subsp. agyllus Fruhstorfer, 1923
Parnassius apollo subsp. aizpuruae Femández Rubio y Gómez Bustillo, 1971
Parnassius apollo var. albus Rebel & Rogenhofer, 1893
Parnassius apollo subsp. albanicus Bryk & Eisner, 1939
Parnassius apollo subsp. alemanicus Fruhstorfer, 1909
Parnassius apollo subsp. alpherakyi Krulikowsky, 1906
Parnassius apollo subsp. alpicola Retzius, 1783
Parnassius apollo subsp. altitudinis Bryk, 1921
Parnassius apollo subsp. amphityon Fruhstorfer, 1921
Parnassius apollo subsp. ampliusdecora Bryk & Eisner, 1929
Parnassius apollo subsp. analis Bryk & Eisner, 1937
Parnassius apollo subsp. analisextincta Bryk & Eisner, 1938
Parnassius apollo subsp. anatolicus Pagenstecher, 1912
Parnassius apollo subsp. ancile Fruhstorfer, 1909
Parnassius apollo subsp. andreashoferi Belling & Bryk, 1930
Parnassius apollo subsp. anneciensis Testout, 1947
Parnassius apollo subsp. antijesuita Bryk, 1912
Parnassius apollo subsp. antiquus Eisner & Zelny, 1974
Parnassius apollo subsp. apenninus Stichel, 1907
Parnassius apollo subsp. aqualensis Acheray, 1937
Parnassius apollo subsp. aragonicus F Bryk, 1914
Parnassius apollo subsp. ardanazi Fernandez, 1926
Parnassius apollo subsp. arvernensis Eisner, 1957
Parnassius apollo subsp. artemidor Fruhstorfer, 1921
Parnassius apollo subsp. artonius Fruhstorfer, 1922
Parnassius apollo subsp. asturiensis A Pagenstecher, 1909
Parnassius apollo subsp. atrides van der Poorten & Dils, 1986
Parnassius apollo subsp .auerspergi Rebel, 1912
Parnassius apollo subsp. australis Testout, 1943
Parnassius apollo subsp. bajuvaricus, Fruhstorfer, 1921
Parnassius apollo subsp. banhohmaeiformis Verity, 1915
Parnassius apollo subsp. bartholomäus H Stich, 1912
Parnassius apollo subsp. bellingi Bryk & Eisner 1931
Parnassius apollo subsp. bellingianus F Bryk, 1921
Parnassius apollo subsp. bergmaskensis Eisner, 1932
Parnassius apollo subsp. bezauensis Reck, 1939
Parnassius apollo subsp. bimacula Stauder, 1921
Parnassius apollo subsp. bohemicus Rebel, 1920
Parnassius apollo subsp. brittingeri Rebel & Rogenhofer, 1892
Parnassius apollo subsp. bohemicus Rebel, 1920
Parnassius apollo subsp. bosniensis Stichel, 1899
Parnassius apollo subsp. braniskoi Eisner & Zelny, 1977
Parnassius apollo subsp. breitfussi Bryk, 1914
Parnassius apollo var. brunneomaculatus Stichel, 1899
Parnassius apollo subsp. burjaticus Nardelli & Hirschfeld, 1994
Parnassius apollo subsp. bühleri Eisner, 1932
Parnassius apollo subsp. calmensis Rütimeyer, 1947
Parnassius apollo subsp. caloriferus H Fruhstorfer, 1921
Parnassius apollo subsp. candidus Verity, 1912
Parnassius apollo subsp. carelius Bryk, 1911
Parnassius apollo subsp. carinthicus H Stichel, 1907
Parnassius apollo subsp. carolmeae Fischer, 1930
Parnassius apollo subsp. carpathicus Rebel & Rogenhofer, 1893
Parnassius apollo subsp. castellanus Belling, 1922
Parnassius apollo subsp. caucasicus Pagenstecher, 1912
Parnassius apollo subsp. cebennicus Le Cerf, 1913
Parnassius apollo subsp. cetius Fruhstorfer, 1893
Parnassius apollo subsp. chetus Fruhstorfer, 1921
Parnassius apollo subsp. chrysophorus Fruhstorfer, 1922
Parnassius apollo subsp. ciscaucasicus Sheljuzhko, 1924
Parnassius apollo subsp. civis Turati, 1932
Parnassius apollo subsp. clarius Hübner, 1805
Parnassius apollo subsp. claudius Belling ,1915
Parnassius apollo subsp. cognatus Belling ,1928
Parnassius apollo subsp. cohaerens Schultz, 1905
Parnassius apollo subsp. comes Belling, 1930
Parnassius apollo subsp. cominius Fruhstorfer, 1921
Parnassius apollo subsp. complexa Bryk & Eisner, 1929
Parnassius apollo subsp. confinis Belling, 1927
Parnassius apollo subsp. cyanopupillata Sedlaczek, 1946
Parnassius apollo subsp. darnanus Rebel, 1917
Parnassius apollo subsp. debilis H Fruhstorfer, 1921
Parnassius apollo subsp. decoratissima Verity, 1919
Parnassius apollo subsp. democratus L K Krulikowsky, 1906
Parnassius apollo subsp. determinatus Bryk, 1921
Parnassius apollo subsp. discocircumcincta Bryk & Eisner ,1938
Parnassius apollo subsp. djumbirensis Bryk & Eisner, 1939
Parnassius apollo subsp. dubius Felix Bryk, 1912
Parnassius apollo var. duplex Eisner, 1964
Parnassius apollo subsp. eiffelensis Austaut, 1900
Parnassius apollo subsp. emilianus Turati, 1923
Parnassius apollo subsp. eremita Belling, 1931
Parnassius apollo subsp. escalerae Rotschild 1909/guadarramensis H Fruhstorfer, 1909
Parnassius apollo subsp. euapenninus R Verity ,1914
Parnassius apollo subsp. eubohemicus Bryk & Eisner, 1930
Parnassius apollo var. excelsior Stichel, 1899
Parnassius apollo subsp. fabrei Rougeot, 1990
Parnassius apollo subsp. fasciata Stichel, 1907
Parnassius apollo subsp. fenestrata Bryk & Eisner, 1939
Parnassius apollo subsp. fennoscandicus F Bryk, 1911
Parnassius apollo subsp. filabricus Sagarra, 1933
Parnassius apollo subsp. finmarchius W Rotschild, 1909/fennicus F Bryk, 1911/nylandicus Bryk, 1911
Parnassius apollo subsp. francisci Le Cerf & Acheray & Reymond, 1939
Parnassius apollo subsp. franconius Bollow, 1930
Parnassius apollo subsp. frankenbergi A Strazov, 1982
Parnassius apollo subsp. friburgensis Niepelt, 1913
Parnassius apollo subsp. friulanus Kolar, 1942
Parnassius apollo subsp. gadorensis Rougeot & Capdeville, 1969
Parnassius apollo subsp. geminus Stichel, 1899
Parnassius apollo subsp. generosus Fruhstorfer, 1920
Parnassius apollo subsp. germaniae Rougeot & Capdeville ,1972
Parnassius apollo subsp. glocnericus Verity, 1910
Parnassius apollo subsp. graccus Ziegler
Parnassius apollo subsp. graecus Ziegler, 1901/grajus Stichel ,1907
Parnassius apollo subsp. graëllsi Fernandez, 1998
Parnassius apollo subsp. grajus Stichel, 1907
Parnassius apollo subsp. graslini Oberthür, 1891
Parnassius apollo subsp. grönblomi Lankiala
Parnassius apollo subsp. guadarramensis Fruhstorfer, 1909
Parnassius apollo subsp. hahnei Reck, 1938
Parnassius apollo subsp. haanshusi Opheim, 1945
Parnassius apollo subsp. haspingeri Belling, 1932
Parnassius apollo subsp. helias Fruhstorfer, 1923
Parnassius apollo subsp. heliophilus Fruhstorfer ,1921
Parnassius apollo subsp. hermineae Pfeiffer, 1954
Parnassius apollo subsp. hermiston Fruhstorfer, 1921
Parnassius apollo subsp. hercegovinensis Schultz, 1893
Parnassius apollo subsp. heseboloides Mariana 1930
Parnassius apollo subsp. hesebolus A D Nordmann, 1851/sibiricus Nordmann, 1851/pseudosibiricus Bryk & Eisner, 1938
Parnassius apollo subsp. hispanicus C Oberthür, 1909
Parnassius apollo var. hoglandicus Kotzsch, 1937
Parnassius apollo subsp. imperialis F Bryk, 1914
Parnassius apollo subsp. intertexta Stichel, 1907
Parnassius apollo subsp. interversus F Bryk ,1922 /intermedius Rebel, 1920
Parnassius apollo subsp. inversa Austaut, 1900
Parnassius apollo subsp. isabellina Verity, 1911
Parnassius apollo subsp. isaricus Rebel, 1920
Parnassius apollo subsp. italicus C Oberthür, 1909
Parnassius apollo subsp. jaraensis Kertész, 1923
Parnassius apollo subsp. jelicus Fruhstorfer, 1921
Parnassius apollo subsp. julianus Staudingeri, 1922
Parnassius apollo subsp. juncta Testout, 1947
Parnassius apollo subsp. jotunensis Opheim, 1945
Parnassius apollo subsp. juvavus Kolar, 1926
Parnassius apollo subsp. kashtshenkoi L A Sheljuzhko, 1908
Parnassius apollo subsp. kosswigi de Lattin, 1941
Parnassius apollo subsp. kricheldorffi Eisner, 1929
Parnassius apollo subsp. krogeri Bryk, 1930
Parnassius apollo subsp. ladinus Belling, 1923
Parnassius apollo subsp. lamperti Oberthür &Bryk, 1914
Parnassius apollo subsp. laufferi F Bryk, 1923
Parnassius apollo subsp. laurica Bryk & Eisner, 1930
Parnassius apollo subsp. laurinus Belling, 1923
Parnassius apollo subsp. leimdörfferi Bryk, 1935
Parnassius apollo subsp. leovigildus H Fruhstorfer, 1901
Parnassius apollo subsp. lessei Rougeot & Capdeville, 1968
Parnassius apollo subsp. levantinus Rothschild, 1908
Parnassius apollo subsp. liburnicus Rebel & Rogenhofer, 1893
Parnassius apollo subsp. ligusticus Costantini, 1917
Parnassius apollo subsp. limicola Stichel, 1907/uralensis
Parnassius apollo subsp. linnéi F Bryk, 1913
Parnassius apollo subsp. linnéi F Bryk, 1913 /forma dilatata Thierry, 1912
Parnassius apollo subsp. lioranus Fruhstorfer, 1921
Parnassius apollo subsp. liptauensis Peschke & Eisner, 1932
Parnassius apollo subsp. lithographicus F Bryk, 1921
Parnassius apollo subsp. loferensis Kolar, 1929
Parnassius apollo subsp. lozerae A Pagenstecher, 1908
Parnassius apollo subsp. luitpoldus Fruhstorfer, 1909
Parnassius apollo subsp. lydiae Dublitzky, 1926
Parnassius apollo subsp. macedonicus Bollow
Parnassius apollo subsp. magnifica Ksienschopolski, 1906
Parnassius apollo subsp. mangartiensis Kolar, 1942
Parnassius apollo subsp. manillius Fruhstorfer, 1922
Parnassius apollo subsp. manleyi C Wyatt, 1964
Parnassius apollo subsp. marcianus A Pagenstecher, 1908
Parnassius apollo subsp. marcomannus Kammel, 1919
Parnassius apollo subsp. mangartiensis Kolar, 1942
Parnassius apollo subsp. markerti Pfeiffer, 1954
Parnassius apollo subsp. marmorarius Belling, 1930
Parnassius apollo subsp. mariae Rougeot & Capdeville, 1969
Parnassius apollo subsp. marteni C Eisner, 1956
Parnassius apollo subsp. maurillianus Fernandez
Parnassius apollo subsp. maurus Fruhstorfer, 1921
Parnassius apollo subsp. maximilianus Fruhstorfer, 1909
Parnassius apollo subsp. mediofurculata Bryk & Eisner, 1937
Parnassius apollo subsp. meinhardi L A Sheljuzhko, 1924
Parnassius apollo subsp. melliculus H Stichel, 1906
Parnassius apollo subsp. melliculus f. graphica H. Stichel, 1907
Parnassius apollo subsp. mendolensis Dannehl, 1925
Parnassius apollo subsp. meridionalis Pagenstecher, 1909/sevensis Kesenheimer, 1920
Parnassius apollo subsp. merzbacheri H Fruhstorfer, 1906 /minerva O Bang-Haas, 1910
Parnassius apollo subsp. metaensis C Eisner, 1959
Parnassius apollo var. minor Rebel & Rogenhofer, 1893
Parnassius apollo subsp. mongolicus O Staudinger, 1900
Parnassius apollo subsp. montanus H Stichel, 1907
Parnassius apollo subsp. montebaldensis Fruhstorfer, 1923
Parnassius apollo subsp. navasi Bryk, 1934
Parnassius apollo subsp. nevadensis C Oberthür, 1891
Parnassius apollo subsp. nexilis Schultz, 1905
Parnassius apollo subsp. nexilisdecora de Sagarra, 1924
Parnassius apollo subsp. nichollae Rougeot & Capdeville, 1972
Parnassius apollo subsp. niesiolowskii Krzywicki, 1963
Parnassius apollo subsp. nigricans Caradja, 1893
Parnassius apollo subsp. nitriensis Issekutz, 1952
Parnassius apollo subsp. nobilis Bryk, 1929
Parnassius apollo subsp. noricanus Kolar, 1922
Parnassius apollo subsp. norwegicus Menthe, 1912
Parnassius apollo subsp. novarae Oberthür, 1891
Parnassius apollo subsp. odriozolae Fernández Rubio & Gómez-Bustillo, 1971
Parnassius apollo subsp. oenipontanus Stauder & Felkel, 1921
Parnassius apollo subsp. oltonlus Fruhstorfer, 1909
Parnassius apollo subsp. olypiacus Kolar & Rebel, 1934
Parnassius apollo subsp. omotimoius Fruhstorfer, 1921
Parnassius apollo subsp. oraviensis Eisner & Zelny, 1969
Parnassius apollo subsp. ossalensis Marquart, 1959
Parnassius apollo subsp. ottonius Fruhstorfer, 1909
Parnassius apollo subsp. ouxlensis R Verity, 1926
Parnassius apollo subsp. pandolfus Fruhstorfer, 1922
Parnassius apollo subsp. panon Fruhstorfer, 1923
Parnassius apollo subsp. paphlagonicus Bryk & Eisner, 1937
Parnassius apollo subsp. pardoi Agenjo, 1972
Parnassius apollo subsp. pcyerimhoffi Viette, 1961
Parnassius apollo subsp. pedemontanus H Fruhstorfer, 1909
Parnassius apollo subsp. peloponnesiacus Pagenstecher
Parnassius apollo subsp. peroneurus Bryk, 1915
Parnassius apollo subsp. phmotertiopicta Bryk & Eisner, 1932
Parnassius apollo subsp. phonolithi Bryk, 1914
Parnassius apollo subsp. phrynius H Fruhstorfer, 1910
Parnassius apollo subsp. planeixi Eisner, 1964
Parnassius apollo subsp. portensis Rütimayer, 1942
Parnassius apollo subsp. posterimarginalis Eisner, 1966
Parnassius apollo subsp. posthumus Fruhstorfer, 1925
Parnassius apollo subsp. postmediocubitalis Bryk & Eisner, 1937
Parnassius apollo subsp. pozazalensis Bustillo & Rubio, 1971/pardoi Agenjo, 1971
Parnassius apollo subsp. primamediaextincta Bryk & Eisner, 1937
Parnassius apollo subsp. provincialis Kheil, 1905
Parnassius apollo subsp. pseudomarschneri Dufrane, 1946
Parnassius apollo subsp. pseudonomion Christ, 1877
Parnassius apollo subsp. pseudosibiricus Bryk & Eisner, 1938
Parnassius apollo subsp. pseudozirpsi Dufrane, 1946
Parnassius apollo subsp. pumilus H Stichel, 1906
Parnassius apollo subsp. pyrenaeica Caradja ,1893
Parnassius apollo subsp. rachelii Eisner, 1975
Parnassius apollo subsp. rebelianus Fruhstorfer, 1921
Parnassius apollo subsp. redivivus Bryk, 1914
Parnassius apollo subsp. rhaeticus Fruhstorfer, 1906
Parnassius apollo subsp. rhea Poda, 1761
Parnassius apollo subsp. rivalis Belling, 1930
Parnassius apollo subsp. rhodopensis Markow,1909
Parnassius apollo subsp. romeii Verity, 1939/altitudinis quercii
Parnassius apollo subsp. rosenius Fruhstorfer, 1923
Parnassius apollo subsp. rosnaviensis Issekutz, 1952
Parnassius apollo subsp. rothschildi Verity
Parnassius apollo subsp. rubidus H Fruhstorfer, 1893
Parnassius apollo subsp. ruii Opheim, 1945
Parnassius apollo subsp. ruthenicus Issekutz, 1952
Parnassius apollo subsp. salevianus Bryk, 1912
Parnassius apollo subsp. sawljuk Dublitzky, 1926
Parnassius apollo subsp. scandinavicus Bath, 1896
Parnassius apollo subsp. secundorubroanalis Bryk & Eisner, 1932
Parnassius apollo subsp. seitziides Bryk & Eisner, 1937
Parnassius apollo subsp. seitziidesposterior Bryk & Eisner, 1937
Parnassius apollo subsp. sequanus Riitimeyer, 1943
Parnassius apollo subsp. serpentinicus L Mayer, 1925
Parnassius apollo subsp. sevensis Kesenheimer, 1920
Parnassius apollo subsp. sibiricus A D Nordmann, 1851/clarius Hemming, 1934
Parnassius apollo subsp. siciliae Oberthür, 1899
Parnassius apollo subsp. sicinius Fruhstorfer, 1921
Parnassius apollo subsp. silesianus Marschner, 1909
Parnassius apollo var. sojoticus Bryk, 1912
Parnassius apollo subsp. sotirion Fruhstorfer, 1923
Parnassius apollo subsp. strambergensis Skala, 1911
Parnassius apollo subsp. sztrecsnoensis Pax, 1915
Parnassius apollo var. suaneticus Arnold, 1909
Parnassius apollo subsp. subampliusmaculata Dufrane, 1946
Parnassius apollo subsp. submicrostigma Dufrane, 1946
Parnassius apollo subsp. subtusrubrocostalis Bryk & Eisner, 1939
Parnassius apollo subsp. suevicus A Pagenstecher, 1909
Parnassius apollo subsp. substitutus W Rotschild, 1909/valesiacus H Fruhstorfer, 1906/bühleri Eisner, 1956
Parnassius apollo subsp. subtusrubrolacrimans Eisner, 1966
Parnassius apollo subsp. sztrecsnoensis Pax, 1915
Parnassius apollo subsp. talgarica Eisner & Sedych, 1966
Parnassius apollo subsp. tarbagataica Verity, 1913
Parnassius apollo subsp. tauferensis
Parnassius apollo subsp. tauricus Bryk & Eisner, 1930
Parnassius apollo subsp. tenebrosus Fruhstorfer, 1912
Parnassius apollo subsp. testoutensis Eisner, 1957
Parnassius apollo subsp. thessalicus Bang-Haas, 1934
Parnassius apollo subsp. thiemo Fruhstorfer, 1909
Parnassius apollo subsp. tindianus Bryk & Eisner, 1937
Parnassius apollo subsp. tkathsukovi Sheljuzhko, 1908
Parnassius apollo subsp. tolminicus Kolar, 1942
Parnassius apollo subsp. tonalensis Bryk, 1921
Parnassius apollo subsp. totiseitziides Bryk & Eisner, 1937
Parnassius apollo subsp. transiliensis C Eisner, 1966/chryseis C Oberthür, 1913
Parnassius apollo subsp. transitoria C Eisner, 1958
Parnassius apollo var. transsylvanicus Schweitzer, 1912
Parnassius apollo subsp. tridentina Dannehl, 1925
Parnassius apollo subsp. triumphator Fruhstorfer, 1921
Parnassius apollo subsp. turatii Rothschild, 1918
Parnassius apollo subsp. turatinus Fruhstorfe, 1921
Parnassius apollo subsp. turkirakirani
Parnassius apollo subsp. unianalis Bryk & Eisner, 1939
Parnassius apollo subsp. uralensis
Parnassius apollo subsp. uralicus Bryk, 1914
Parnassius apollo subsp. venustus Belling, 1929
Parnassius apollo subsp. vercorcius Testout, 1943
Parnassius apollo subsp. vicinus Belling, 1929
Parnassius apollo subsp. victorialis Fruhstorfer, 1921
Parnassius apollo subsp. victorialis f montegrappensis G Sala, M Bollino & de Castro, 1993
Parnassius apollo subsp. valdieriensis Verity, 1911
Parnassius apollo subsp. valesiacus Fruhstorfer, 1906
Parnassius apollo subsp. venaissimus H Fruhstorfer ,1921
Parnassius apollo subsp. venustus Belling, 1929
Parnassius apollo subsp. apollo venutissimus
Parnassius apollo subsp. verus Bang-Haas, 1912/scandinavica Harcourt-Bath, 1896 synonyms to nominate
Parnassius apollo subsp. vicinus Belling, 1929
Parnassius apollo var. vilpianus Dannehl, 1933
Parnassius apollo subsp. vindobonensis Bollow, 1929
Parnassius apollo subsp. vinningensis H Stichel, 1900/ esfestensis Austaut, 1900
Parnassius apollo subsp. vistulicus Bang-Haas, 1927
Parnassius apollo subsp. wenzeli Bryk, 1921
Parnassius apollo subsp. verityi Rothschild, 1918
Parnassius apollo subsp. wiscotti Oberthür, 1891
Parnassius apollo subsp. xerophilus Fruhstorfer
Parnassius apollo subsp. yglanus Fruhstorfer, 1921
Parnassius apollo subsp. zarathustrae Bryk, 1914
Parnassius apollo subsp. zelnyi Eisner, 1974
Parnassius apollo subsp. zirpsi Bryk, 1913

          Zerynthiini
          Sericinius  Westwood

Sericinus montela koreana pair

Photo © G. Waldeck

Sericinus montela young larvae

Photo © Sune Hauch

Sericinus montela larva

Photo © Sune Hauch

Sericinus montela male to the left, female above

Photos © Sune Hauch

Sericinus montela male

Photo © Sune Hauch

Sericinus montela pair mating

Photo © Sune Hauch

E. Russia, China, Korea, Japan

41. Sericinius montela (Gray, 1843)
/telamon (Donovan, 1798)
Larva on Aristolochia contorta
Pupa hibernating
Described subspecies and forms:
Sericinus montela amurensis Staudinger, 1892
Sericinus telamon subsp. hoenei Hering, 1935
Sericinus telamon subsp. hunanensis Hering, 1935
Sericinus telamon subsp. kansuensis Eisner, 1962
Sericinus telamon var. koreana Fixen, 1887
Sericinus telamon subsp. leechi Rothschild, 1918
Sericinus telamon subsp. shantungensis Hering, 1935
Sericinus telmona Gray, 1852


          Allancastria Bryk

Photo © G. Waldeck

Allancastria cerisyi larva

Photo ©Anton Biryokov

Middle East, Turkey, Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Caucasus

42. Allancastria cerisyi (Godart 1824)
English: Eastern Festoon
Larva on Aristolochia
Described subspecies and forms:
Allancastria cerisyi subsp. cretica Rebel, 1904
Allancastria cerisyi subsp. cypria Stichel, 1907
Allancastria cerisyi subsp.dalmacijae Sala & Bollino, 1994
Allancastria cerisyi subsp. destrigata Schultz, 1908
Allancastria cerisyi subsp ferdinandi Stichel, 1907
Allancastria cerisyi subsp. goeksui Kuhna, 1977
Allancastria cerisyi subsp. hermanni Stichel, 1910
Allancastria cerisyi subsp.huberi Sala & Bollino, 1994
Allancastria cerisyi subsp. koçaki Kuhna, 1977
Allancastria cerisyi var. koroneii Kattulas & Koutsaftikis, 1978
Allancastria cerisyi subsp martini Fruhstorfer, 1906
Allancastria cerisyi subsp.mihljevici Sijaric, 1990
Allancastria cerisyi subsp. mysiensis Eisner & Wagener, 1974
Allancastria cerisyi subsp. sami Schmidt, 1989
Allancastria cerisyi subsp. speciosa Stichel, 1907


Stages of lifecycle of Allancastria deyrollei eisneri  

Photo © Oz Rittner

Turkey, Middle East

43.  Allancastria deyrollei (Oberthür 1872) 
 Described subspecies and forms:
Allancastria deyrollei subsp. eisneri Bernardi, 1970
Allancastria deyrollei subsp. lycaoniae Eisner & Wagener, 1974
Allancastria deyrollei subsp. deyrollei Schultz, 1908

       

Allancastria caucasica tkatshukovi pair

Photo © G. Waldeck

Allancastria caucasica tkatshukovi male

Photo © Frédéric Carbonell

Allancastria caucasica tkatshukovi female

Photo © Frédéric Carbonell

Armenia, Azerbaidjan, Georgia, Russia, Turkey.

44. Allancastria caucasica (Lederer, 1864)
Larva on Aristolochia iberica
Pupa hibernating
Described subspecies and forms:
Allancastria caucasica subsp. cachetica Sheljuzhko, 1927
Allancastria caucasica subsp. abanti Koçak, 1975
Allancastria caucasuca subsp. tkatshukovi Sheljuzhko, 1927

       

Photo © G. Waldeck

Allancastria louristana male

Photo © Frédéric Carbonell

Allancastria louristana female

Photo © Frédéric Carbonell

Iran

45. Allancastria louristana (Le Cerf, 1908)
 Described subspecies and forms:
Allancastria louristana subsp. boyrahmadiensis Blom & Eisner, 1979
Allancastria louristana subsp. hermanni Stichel, 1910


          Zerynthia  Ochsenheimer

Pairs of Zerynthia polyxena nominate and one ssp.

Photo © G. Waldeck

Zerynthia polyxena larva Aristolochia clematitis

Photo ©Anton Biryokov

S. Europe, Ucraine, Belarus,        S. Russia

46. Zerynthia polyxena (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775)
English: Southern FestoonFrench: La DianeGerman: Osterluzeifalter

Larva on Aristolochia clematitis, Aristolochia pistolochia, Aristolochia rotunda

Described subspecies and forms:
Zerynthia polyxena subsp. aegidii Nardelli, 1993
Zerynthia polyxena subsp. aemiliae Rocci, 1929
Zerynthia polyxena var. albanica Riemel, 1927
Zerynthia polyxena subsp.bosniensis Eisner, 1974
Zerynthia polyxena subsp. bryki Eisner, 1954
Zerynthia polyxena subsp. cassandra Hübner, 1828
Zerynthia polyxena var. demaculata Schultz, 1908
Zerynthia polyxena subsp. decastroi Sala & Bollino, 1992
Zerynthia polyxena subsp. demnosia Freyer, 1831
Zerynthia polyxena forma diabolica Schulte & Weiss, 1991
Zerynthia polyxena var. gracilis Schultz, 1908
Zerynthia polyxena subsp. hypermnestra Scopoli, 1763
Zerynthia polyxena subsp. idaensis Eisner, 1974
Zerynthia polyxena subsp. linnea Bryk, 1932
Zerynthia polyxena subsp. macedonia Eisner, 1974
Zerynthia polyxena subsp. petrii Bryk, 1932
Zerynthia polyxena subsp. tristis de Lattin, 1950
Zerynthia polyxena var. lativittata Schultz, 1908
Zerynthia polyxena var. marpha Schultz, 1908
Zerynthia polyxena subsp. michaelis Nardelli, 1993
Zerynthia polyxena var. nora Schultz, 1908
Zerynthia polyxena subsp. patrizii Nardelli, 1993
Zerynthia polyxena var. punctata Schultz, 1908
Zerynthia polyxena var. subalbida Schultz, 1908
Zerynthia polyxena var. thesto Fruhstorfer, 1908
Zerynthia polyxena subsp. vulgaris Esper, 1781
Zerynthia polyxena var. xenia Schultz, 1908

Two pairs of Zerynthia rumina ssp

Photo © G. Waldeck

Zerynthia rumina catalonica larva on Aristolochia clematitis

Photo ©Anton Biryokov

Zerynthia rumina male specimen

Photo © Frédéric Carbonell

Zerynthia rumina medesicaste f.honnorati

Digital reconstruction from museum specimens. Last observation in 1991

Photo © Frédéric Carbonell

                                     

S W. Europe, N. Africa

47. Zerynthia rumina (Linnaeus, 1758)
     English: Spanish Festoon Spanish: Arlequin
Larva on Aristolochia
Described subspecies and forms:
Zerynthia rumina africana Stichel, 1907
Zerynthia rumina subsp. alba Esper, 1794
Zerynthia rumina subsp. alicea Neuburger, 1903
Zerynthia rumina subsp. armasi Agenjo, 1972
Zerynthia rumina subsp. australis Esper, 1781
Zerynthia rumina subsp. andalusiana Stichel, 1907
Zerynthia rumina subsp. castilliana F Rühl, 1892
Zerynthia rumina subsp. catalonica de Sagarra y Castellarnau ,1930
Zerynthia rumina var. derubrescens Schultz, 1908
Zerynthia rumina subsp.disorta
Zerynthia rumina subsp. divisa Schultz, 1908
Zerynthia rumina subsp. europeenne Verity, 1906
Zerynthia rumina subsp. henrietta Timins, 1867
Zerynthia rumina subsp. honnoratii Boisduval, 1832
Zerynthia rumina subsp. isabellae Sabariego & Huertas, 1975
Zerynthia rumina subsp. josephignatius Agenjo, 1972
Zerynthia rumina subsp. lusitanica Bryk, 1932
Zerynthia rumina subsp. maturna Butler, 1870
Zerynthia rumina var. mauretanica Schultz, 1908
Zerynthia rumina forma medesicaste Hoffmannsegg, 1803
Zerynthia rumina subsp. minima Gerhandinger, 1951
Zerynthia rumina subsp. ornatior Blachier, 1905
Zerynthia rumina subsp. paucipunctata Neuburger, 1903
Zerynthia rumina subsp. petheri Romei, 1927
Zerynthia rumina subsp. rubristriga Bryk, 1932
Zerynthia rumina subsp. tarrieri
Zerynthia rumina subsp. transcastiliana Sabariego, 1977
Zerynthia rumina subsp. tristis Verity, 1911
Zerynthia rumina var. xanthe Schultz, 1908


          Bhutanitis  Atkinson
          Distribution map of Bhutanitis species

Bhutanitis mansfieldi pulchristiata pair

Photo © G. Waldeck

Yunnan, China

48. Bhutanitis mansfieldi (Riley, 1939)
Larva on Aristolochia
Described subspecies and forms:
Bhutanitis mansfieldi subsp. pulchristriata Saigusa & Lee, 1982  


Bhutanitis thaidina samples

Photo © G. Waldeck

China, Tibet

49. Bhutanitis thaidina (Blanchard, 1871)
     Larva on Aristolochia 
Distribution map of Bhutanitis thaidina   
Described subspecies and forms:
Bhutanitis thaidina subsp. dongchuanensis Lee, 1985
Bhutanitis thaidina subsp. hoenei Bryk, 1938
Bhutanitis thaidina subsp. melli Bryk, 1938
Bhutanitis thaidina subsp. nigrilima Chou, 1992
Bhutanitis thaidina subsp. sorimachii Morita, 1992
Bhutanitis thaidina subsp. yulongensis Chou, 1992
 

Bhutanitis lidderdalii samples

Photo © G. Waldeck

Bhutan, Nepal, N. India, Burma, Thailand, W. China

50. Bhutanitis lidderdalii (Atkinson, 1873)
English: Bhutan Glory 
Larva on Aristolochia
Described subspecies and forms:
Bhutanitis lidderdalii subsp. nobucoae Morita, 1997
Bhutanitis lidderdalii subsp.ochracea Tytler, 1939
Bhutanitis lidderdalii subsp. spinosa Stichel, 1907
Bhutanitis lidderdalii subsp. nobucoae Morita, 1997


Bhutanitis ludlowi

Bhutan

51. Bhutanitis ludlowi (Gabriel, 1942) 
       Larva on Aristolochia? 

         

           Luehdorfia Crüger

Luehdorfia chinensis pair

Photo © G. Waldeck

                   

E. China

52. Luehdorfia chinensis (Salvin, 1893)             
Larva on Asarum sieboldi, Asarum nipponicum, Asarum forbesi
Distribution map of Luehdorfia chinensis
Described subspecies and forms:
Luehdorfia chinensis subsp. leei Chou, 1994
Luehdorfia chinensis subsp. lenzeni Bryk, 1938
Luehdorfia chinensis var. meissneri Bryk, 1938



Luehdorfia japonica japonica pair

Photo © G. Waldeck

Luehdorfia japonica

Luehdorfia japonica

Honshu, Japan

53. Luehdorfia japonica (Leech, 1889)
Larva on Asarum  caulescens, A. sieboldii, A. hexalobum, A. asperum, A. tamaense, A. curvistigma, A. asaroides, A. blumei, A. nipponicum, A.fauriei, A. takaoi, A. kurosawae, A. heterotropoides, A. megacalyx, A. yohikawai. In captivity larva will not accept any plant of Aristolochia
Distribution map of Luehdorfia japonica
Described subspecies and forms:
Luehdorfia japonica subsp. formosana Rothschild, 1918
Luehdorfia japonica subsp. nakamurae Matsumura 1919
Luehdorfia japonica subsp. omikron Bryk 1932
Luehdorfia japonica subsp. takamukana Matsumura 1919
Luehdorfia japonica subsp. tobae Matsumura 1919
Luehdorfia japonica subsp. yazawae Matsumura 1919

         

Luehdorfia puziloi inexpecta pair

Photo © G. Waldeck

E. Russia, N E. China, Korea, Japan

54. Luehdorfia puziloi (Erschoff, 1872)
Larva on Asarum sieboldi, A. heterotropoides, A. megacalyx, A. takaoi, A .fauriei
Pupa hibernating
Distribution map of Luehdorfia puziloi
Described subspecies and forms:
Luehdorfia puziloi subsp. bryki Eisner, 1962
Luehdorfia puziloi subsp. eximia Crüger, 1878
Luehdorfia puziloi subsp. inexpecta Sheljuzhko, 1913
Luehdorfia puziloi subsp. lingjangensis Lee, 1982
Luehdorfia puziloi subsp. machimuraorum Fujioka 2003
Luehdorfia puziloi subsp. yessoensis Rothschild, 1918



          Not listed in the IUCN Red Data Book
          An overview on this page

Archon apollinaris O Staudinger 1892 ssp pairs

Photo © G. Waldeck

Iran, Iraq, Turkey

55.  Arcon apollinaris (Otto Staudinger, 1892)                                                                 

English:False Apollo  

      Larva on Aristolochia
Described subspecies and forms:
Archon apollinus forma krystallina Schilde, 1884
Archon apollinus forma mardina Stichel, 1907
Archon apollinaris subsp. bostanchii de Freina & Naderi, 2004

Archon bostanchii De Freina & Naderi 2003             

Photo © G. Waldeck

Iran

56.  Arcon bostanchii (De Freina & Naderi 2003)                                                                 

English:False Apollo  

      Larva on Aristolochia






Three males of different ssp of andreji C Eisner 1930

Photo © G. Waldeck

China

57. Parnassius andreji (C Eisner 1930) 
Described subspecies and forms: 
Parnassius andreji subsp. albifer Eisner, 1938
Parnassius andreji subsp. buddenbrocki Bang-Haas, 1938
Parnassius andreji subsp. dirschi Bang-Haas, 1938
Parnassius andreji subsp. eos Bryk & Eisner, 1934
Parnassius andreji subsp. kongfuzii Kocman, 1996
Parnassius andreji subsp. simillimus Bryk & Eisner, 1937
Parnassius andreji subsp. verhulsti Kocman, 1995
Parnassius andreji subsp. wenquanensis
Parnassius andreji subsp. yayoiae Shinkai, 1997

Parnassius arcticus Eisner 1968 pair

Photo ©  G Waldeck

E. Yakutia

58. Parnassius arcticus (Eisner, 1968)
     Larva on Corydalis gorodkovi
Described subspecies and forms: 
Parnassius arcticus ammosovi Korshunov, 1988 (synonym)

       

Samples of Parnassius augustus ssp

Photo © G. Waldeck

China

59. Parnassius augustus (Fruhstorfer 1903)
Described subspecies and forms:
Parnassius augustus subsp. panna Kawasaki, 1997
Parnassius augustus subsp. karmapa Weiss & Michel, 1989
Parnassius augustus subsp. mahamayuri Shinkai & Morita, 1995

       

Photo © G. Waldeck

                                     

China

60. Parnassius baileyi (South 1927)   
Distribution map of P baileyi  
Described subspecies and forms:
Parnassius baileyi rothschildianus Bryk, 1931
Parnassius baileyi var. masculina Bryk, 1931
Parnassius baileyi subsp. baileyanus Bryk, 1932


  

Photo © G. Waldeck

                                                    

China

61.. Parnassius choui (Huang & Shi 1994)   
                     
                                     
   




Samples of Parnassius boëdromius nominate and three ssp

Photo © G. Waldeck

                                     

Tien Shan

62 Parnassius boëdromius (Püngeler, 1901)
 R. Püngeler in: D. ent. Z. Lep.,v 14 p. 177 t.1 f. 3, 4  
 Larva on Lagotis decumbens,  L. integrefolia
Described subspecies and forms:
Parnassius boëdromius var. anops Austaut, 1910
Parnassius boëromius var. caliginosa Austaut, 1910
Parnassius boëdromius subsp. candida Avinov, 1913
Parnassius boëdromius subsp. hohlbecki Avinov, 1913
Parnassius boëdromius subsp. marcopolo Weiss, 1994
Parnassius boëdromius var. pygmaeus Bang-Haas, 1910
Parnassius boëdromius subsp. sokolovi Kreuzberg, 1989
Parnassius boëdromius subsp. toshioi Shinkai, 1997
Parnassius boëdromius subsp. martini-heringi Bryk & Eisner, 1930

Parnassius cardinal djamila Eisner & Naumann, 1980

Photo © G. Waldeck

N W Pamir Mts, Afghanistan

63. Parnassius cardinal (Grum-Grshimailo, 1887)
 Bericht über meine Reise...Ed. Romanoff., St. Petersbourg, 1887 , v 3:357 - 402 .
 Larva on Corydalis ledebouriana
Described subspecies and forms:
Parnassius subsp. djamila Eisner & Naumann, 1980
Parnassius subsp. noxinfernus Eisner & Naumann, 1980
Parnassius subsp. rubrojuncta O.Bang-Haas, 1915
               


Photo © G. Waldeck

Moldo-Too Mts, Kirghizia

64. Parnassius davydovi (Sergei Churkin 2005)   
Davydovi link here!


Parnassius dongalaicus / rikihiroi Kawasaki 1995 pair

Photo © G. Waldeck

China

65. Parnassius dongalaicus (Tytler 1926) 
Described subspecies and forms:
Parnassius rikihiroi Kawasaki, 1995 (synonym)

       

Two males of Parnassius hide ssp

Photo © G. Waldeck

China Qinghai, Kunlun Mountains

66. Parnassius hide (Koiwaya, 1987)
Gekkan Mushi 201:6
Distribution of Parnassius hide
Described subspecies and forms:
Parnassius hide subsp. aksobhya Shinkai, 1990
Parnassius hide subsp. hengduanshanus Nose, 1990
Parnassius hide subsp. meveli Weiss & Michel 1989
Parnassius hide subsp. pavlae Kocman, 1999
Parnassius hide subsp. poshulalinus Nose, 1990
Parnassius hide subsp. qamdensis Nose, 1990
Parnassius hide subsp. samantabhadra Shinkai, 1997


Parnassius huberi Paulus 1999 pair

Photo © Göran Waldeck

Tibet

67. Parnassius huberi (Vladimir Paulus 1999)
Distribution of P huberi


Parnassius hunza Grum-Grshimailo 1888 pair

Photo © G. Waldeck

S E Pamir

68. Parnassius hunza (Grum-Grshimailo, 1888)
Berl.ent. Z., 26:163, Taf 2, Abb. 7, 8, 8a. 
     Larva on Corydalis onobrychis, Cysticorydalis fedtschenkoana

     


Photo © G. Waldeck

                                     

Tadzhikistan, Afghanistan

69. Parnassius jacobsoni (Avinov, 1913)  
Trudy Russk. entomol. obsch., 1913, v.40, No.5: 1-21, pl.2.


Parnassius kiritshenkoi Avinov 1910 pair

Photo © G. Waldeck

                                     

Sarykolsky Mts, Zaalaisky Mts

79. Parnassius kiritshenkoi (Avinov, 1910) 
Hor. Soc. ent. Ross: 39:228 
Described subspecies and forms:
Parnassius kiritschenkoi dunkeldykus Sotshivko & Kaabak, 1996
 


       


Parnassius labeyriei Weiss & Michel 1989 pair

Photo © G. Waldeck

China

71. Parnassius labeyriei (Weiss & Michel 1989)   

           Distribution of P labeyriei

Described subspecies and forms:
Parnassius labeyriei subsp. beranki Kocman, 1999
Parnassius labeyriei var. giacomazzoi Weiss, 1991
Parnassius labeyriei subsp. naocoae Morita, 1997
Parnassius labeyriei subsp. sakyamuni Kocman, 1995
Parnassius labeyriei subsp. weii Mikami, 1998
     


Parnassius maximinus nominate and ssp pairs

Photo © G. Waldeck

W. Tien Shan Mts

72. Parnassius maximinus (Staudingeri, 1891)
D.ent.Z.Iris, 1891, Bd. 4: 158-162. 
      Larva on Corydalis darwasica, C. ledebouriana   
Described subspecies and forms:
     Parnassius maximinus subsp. kasakstana Bang-Haas, 1933
Parnassius maximinus subsp. legezina Bergmann, 1995


Parnassius nandadevinensis

Mt Nanda Devi, India

73. Parnassius nadadevinensis (D Weiss 1990)
Acta ent. Mus.natn. Prague, p 329 

       


Parnassius nosei Watanabe 1989 male

Photo © G. Waldeck

China 

74. Parnassius nosei (Watanabe 1989)
W. Kitawaki in Notes on Eurasian Insects No. 1, 1990 p.2
         Distribution of P nosei


Parnassius schultei ssp pairs

Photo © G. Waldeck

Tibet,W. China

75.  Parnassius schultei (Weiss & Michel 1989) 
Distribution of P schultei
Described subspecies and forms:
Parnassius schultei subsp. hiromiae Kawasaki, 1995
Parnassius schultei subsp.  shibasaki Sorimachi & Morita, 1993

       

Parnassius simonius nominate and ssp grayi

Photo © G. Waldeck

N. Pamir Mts.

76. Parnassius simonius (Staudinger, 1889)
 Centralasiatischen Lepidopteren. Stett. entomol. Z., 1889 Bb.50: 16-61  
 Larva on Lagotis decumbens, Veronica luetkeana
Described subspecies and forms:
Parnassius simonius subsp. grayi Avinoff, 1916
Parnassius simonius subsp. nigrificatus Kreuzberg, 1986.
Parnassius simonius subsp. shuvalorum Kreuzberg & Pljushch, 1992
Parnassius simonius subsp. simulator Staudinger, 1889
Parnassius simonius subsp. taldicus Gundorov, 1991.

Parnassius staudingeri ssp pairs

Photo © G. Waldeck

Gissar-Darvaz Mts. Baisuntau, Deosai Plateau, Gissar, Zeravshan, Turkestan

77. Parnssius staudingeri (Bang-Haas, 1882)
 Staudingeri:  Über einige neue Parnassius...Central-Asiens (1882)
 Larva on Cysticorydalis fedtschenkoana, Corydalis onobrychis
Described subspecies and forms:
Parnassius staudingeri subsp. elegans Bryk, 1932
Parnassius staudingeri subsp. hissaricus Eisner, 1968
Parnassius staudingeri subsp. micha Eisner, 1975
Parnassius staudingeri var. abramovi Bang-Haas, 1915
Parnassius staudingeri subsp. affinis Peschke & Eisner, 1934
Parnassius staudingeri subsp. chitralicus Verity, 1910
Parnassius staudingeri subsp. darvasica Avinoff, 1916
Parnassius staudingeri var. dolabella Fruhstorfer, 1904
Parnassius staudingeri subsp. eva Kotzsch, 1936
Parnassius staudingeri var. illustris Grum-Grshimailo, 1888
Parnassius staudingeri var. infernalis Staudinger, 1886
Parnassius staudingeri subsp. kafir Avinoff, 1916
Parnassius staudingeri subsp. kohibaba Clench & Shoumatoff, 1956
Parnassius staudingeri var. mamaievi Avinoff, 1916
Parnassius staudingeri subsp. mogul Wyatt, 1975
Parnassius staudingeri subsp. pontifex Bryk & Eisner, 1932
Parnassius staudingeri subsp. ruth Kotzsch, 1936
Parnassius staudingerisubsp. shigarensis Bang-Haas, 1935
Parnassius staudingeri subsp. sobolevskyi Avinoff, 1916
Parnassius staudingeri subsp. workmani Avinoff, 1916
Parnassius staudingeri subsp. mustagata Rose, 1990
Parnassius staudingeri subsp. transiens Austaut, 1889
   

Photo © G. Waldeck

                                     

India

78. Parnassius stenosemus (Honrath 1890)
Distribution of Parnassius stenosemus 
Described subspecies and forms:
Parnassius stenosemus var. divinus Bryk & Eisner, 1931
Parnassius stenosemus subsp. mulkilensis Inaoka & Ogawa, 1992
Parnassius stenosemus subsp. nadiae Weiss & Michel, 1992
Parnassius stenosemus subsp. nobuko Ohya 1996/Inomata, 1998
Parnassius stenosemus subsp. pensi Eisner & Weiss, 1990
Parnassius stenosemus subsp. rileyi Tytler, 1926

          Allancastria Bryk

Allancastria cretica male in the wild

Photo © Frédéric Carbonell

Kriti

79. Allancastria cretica (Rebel 1904)
Larva on Aristolochia cretica, Aristolochia sempervivens, accepts in captivity Aristolochia pistolochia and Aristolochia longa

       

           Luehdorfia Crüger

Luehdorfia longicaudata Lee 1982

Photo © G. Waldeck

China

80. Luehdorfia longicaudata (Lee 1982)
Larva on Saruma henryi, in captivity also Asarum nipponicum, Asarum sieboldi and Asarum caulescens
Distribution map of Luehdorfia longicaudata
Described subspecies and forms:
Luehdorfia taibai Chou, 1994 (synonym)
       

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